Dating the enemy 1996
If animals suffering is excluded, no pain of any kind is caused by the inevitable limitations of nature ; and they can only be called evil by analogy, and in a sense quite different from that in which the term is applied to human experience. Descartes supposed that animals were merely machines, without sensation or consciousness ; he was closely followed by Malebranche and Cartesians generally.
Clarke, moreover, has aptly remarked (Correspondence with Leibniz, letter ii) that the apparent disorder of nature is really no disorder, since it is part of a definite scheme, and precisely fulfills the intention of the Creator; it may therefore be counted as a relative perfection rather than an imperfection. Leibniz grants sensation to animals, but considers that mere sense-perception, unaccompanied by reflexion, cannot cause either pain or pleasure; in any case he holds the pain and pleasure of animals to be parable in degree to those resulting from reflex action in man (see also Maher, Psychology, Supp't. It is evident again that all evil is essentially negative and not positive; i.e.
It is, in fact, only by a transference to irrational objects of the subjective ideals and aspirations of human intelligence, that the "evil of nature " can be called evil in any sense but a merely analogous one. it consists not in the acquisition of anything, but in the loss or deprivation of something necessary for perfection.
The nature and degree of pain in lower animals is very obscure, and in the necessary absence of data it is difficult to say weather it should rightly be classed with the merely formal evil which belongs to inanimate objects, or with the suffering of human beings. Pain, which is the test or criterion of physical evil, has indeed a positive, though purely subjective existence as a sensation or emotion; but its evil quality lies in its disturbing effector the sufferer. iii, 10) as "privato boni alicujus"; Albertus Magnus (adopting St.
But when the universe is considered as the work of an all-benevolent and all-powerful Creator, a fresh element is added to the problem.With regard to the nature of evil, it should be observed that evil is of three kinds -- physical, moral, and metaphysical.